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The Biden administration plans to ease sanctions on Venezuelan oil to allow more of the country's crude to reach Europe.
The U.S. will allow European companies still operating in Venezuela to immediately transfer more oil to the continent, while allowing Chevron to negotiate a resumption of operations in Venezuela, according to people familiar with the matter. Venezuela's OPPOSITION, which is backed by the United States, is understood to favor the move. Tight global oil supplies have sent crude and fuel costs soaring, threatening to add to already high inflation. Increasing Venezuelan crude exports would help ease supply constraints while also helping to reduce Europe's dependence on Russian energy.
The US has sought to encourage talks between the Venezuelan government and the US-backed opposition to open the way to free and fair elections by extending a limited license held by Chevron to allow the oil company to maintain its operations in Venezuela and negotiate future operations.
The United States reportedly did not extend a permit to Allow Chevron to drill and sell Venezuelan crude, as the company had hoped.
The license extension will allow Chevron to negotiate with State-run Petroleos de Venezuela SA, with which it has a joint venture. Previously, the company could not directly negotiate with any officials sanctioned by the United States. Chevron has been lobbying the United States to allow it to drill for Venezuelan crude and sell it on world markets to help lower energy prices amid the Russia-Ukraine war.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of many commodities like the colloidal gold are still very uncertain.
What is Colloidal Gold?
Colloidal gold is a sol or colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles in a fluid (usually water). Colloids are usually wine red (for spherical particles smaller than 100nm) or blue/purple (for larger spherical particles or nanorods). Due to their optical, electronic, and molecular recognition properties, gold nanoparticles are the subject of a great deal of research in fields including electron microscopy, electronics, nanotechnology, materials science, and biomedicine.
The properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles and their potential applications depend largely on their size and shape. For example, rod-like particles have transverse and longitudinal absorption peaks, and anisotropy of shape affects their self-assembly.
Colloidal gold has been used by artists for centuries because of the interaction of nanoparticles with visible light. Depending on particle size, shape, local refractive index, and state of aggregation, gold nanoparticles absorb and scatter light to produce colors that range from bright red (smaller particles) to blue to black, and finally transparent and colorless (larger particles). The colors appear due to a phenomenon called local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), in which conducting electrons on the surface of the nanoparticles resonate with incident light.
As a general rule, the wavelength of the absorbed light increases with the size of the nanoparticles. For example, pseudo-spherical gold nanoparticles with a diameter of about 30 nm have peak LSPR absorption at about 530 nm.
Apparent change color of the gold nanoparticles solution can also be caused by the environment of colloidal gold suspension of optical properties of gold nanoparticles depend on the refractive index near the surface of the nanoparticles, thus two molecules connected directly to the surface of nanoparticles (i.e., nanoparticles ligand) and/or nanoparticles of solvent may affect the observed optical characteristics. As the refractive index near the gold surface increases, NP LSPR will shift to longer wavelengths except in solvent environments, where the extinction peak can be adjusted by coating nanoparticles with non-conductive shells such as silica, biomolecules, or alumina.
When gold nanoparticles aggregate, the optical properties of the particles change because the effective particle size, shape, and dielectric environment all change.
What is Colloidal Gold Used For?
Drug delivery system
Gold nanoparticles can be used to optimize the biological distribution of drugs in diseased organs, tissues, or cells to improve and target drug delivery. Nanoparticle mediated drug delivery is feasible only if drug distribution is inadequate. Examples include drug targeting against instability (proteins, siRNA, DNA). Delivery to difficult sites (brain, retina, tumor, intracellular organelles) and drugs with serious side effects (e.g., anticancer agents). The performance of nanoparticles depends on particle size and surface function. In addition, drug release and particle decomposition may vary from system to system (e.g. ph-sensitive biodegradable polymers).
Radiotherapy dose enhancer
There has been considerable interest in using gold and other nanoparticles containing heavy atoms to enhance the dose delivered to tumors. Because the gold nanoparticles are absorbed more by the tumor than nearby healthy tissue, the dose is selectively increased. The biological effectiveness of the treatment appears to be due to the local deposition of radiation dose near the nanoparticles. This mechanism is the same as in heavy ion therapy.
Toxic gas detection
A simple and inexpensive method for in-situ detection of H2S in the air has been developed based on the AuNPs properties of gold nanoparticles. When H2S is dissolved into weakly alkaline buffer solution, HS- is formed, which can stabilize AuNPs and ensure that AuNPs remain red, facilitating naked detection of H2S toxicity level.
What is the Difference between Colloidal Silver and Colloidal Gold?
Colloidal silver is widely used to treat a variety of conditions, including viral and bacterial infections, allergies, burns, skin conditions, and even cancer and HIV.
Colloidal gold is thought to improve memory and cognitive function, reduce stress, reduce headaches and improve overall health.
Is Colloidal Gold Natural?
Gold nanoparticles are a natural substance without any chemical additives.
Colloidal Gold Price
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
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Colloidal Gold Supplier
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Recently, the Turkish government announced that the Turkish President has signed a presidential decree to provide incentives for its Black Sea gas field development projects, including tax exemptions and other preferential measures.
With a fixed investment of 145.1 billion Turkish lira ($10 billion), the project will employ 1,018 people and produce 14 billion standard cubic meters of gas per year, the decree reads. The incentives involved include tariff and VAT exemptions, as well as a range of tax cuts.
In June 2021, Turkish drill ships discovered 135 billion cubic meters of natural gas in the Sakaria field in the Black Sea, bringing Turkey's total gas discoveries in the region to 540 billion cubic meters.
Turkey imports almost all of its annual gas consumption of about 50 billion cubic meters.
Except for natural gas, the supply and prices of many other colloidal gold will continue to be influenced by international situations.