Perovskite solar cells have ultra-long stability the new material graphene structure application
Perovskite holds great promise for further improvements in the efficiency of solar panels in the future. Until now, their short service life has been considered the biggest obstacle to their practical use, but that could soon change. In the latest issue of Nature Energy, researchers from the Helmholtz Institute Erlangen-Nuremberg in Forschungszentrum Julich have come up with a variant that stands out because of its particular stability. The perovskite cell maintained 99 percent of its initial efficiency during more than 1,450 hours of operational testing under high temperature and light.
One characteristic of perovskite is its special crystal structure. Different atoms and molecules may have multiple material combinations, some of which exhibit ferroelectric, superconducting, or photovoltaic properties. Although known since the early 19th century, such materials have only recently been discovered for photovoltaic power generation. It only takes 10 years of research to increase efficiency to the level of traditional silicon solar cells at an unprecedented rate. Perovskites have several decisive advantages over silicon crystals: they can be easily produced, economically efficient and energy-efficient. The perovskite layer, which is only a few hundred nanometers thick, also works well with conventional silicon cells. Although silicon-based technology is already considered mature, such "tandem solar cells" offer new opportunities to further improve the efficiency of solar cells.
"The Achilles heel of perovskite solar cells is their low durability," explained Professor Christoph Brabec of the Helmholtz Institute in Erlangen Nuremberg (HI ERN) in Forschungszentrum Julich. "Classic silicon modules are very durable. Even after more than 20 years of practical use, their performance hardly degrades." Solar cells made of perovskite, on the other hand, typically lose their efficiency after a few days or weeks. In the lab, early cell aging can be observed, with cells becoming less efficient within seconds or minutes of turning on the light.
"On the other hand, the solar cells we have now presented in Nature Energy are impressive for their extraordinary stability. This is undoubtedly the best measurement of flat perovskite solar cells in the long term." Brabec said. The illuminated batteries survived for 1,450 hours in laboratory temperatures of around 65 degrees Celsius and remained largely stable throughout the test. At the end of the day, it still has an initial efficiency of 99%. "Long-term forecasting is always difficult. But the perovskite solar cells we are developing can certainly run for more than 20,000 hours under normal conditions, "Estimates Prof Brabec.
New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the graphene structure.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials graphene structure have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the graphene structure raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The graphene structure materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The graphene structure industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
New materials including the graphene structure market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials graphene structure on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the graphene structure material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of graphene structure science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
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